What separates your mind from an animal's? Is it your ability to design tools, your sense of self, or your grasp of past and future that makes humans the superior species? But these claims have been eroded – or even disproved outright – by recent studies of animal cognition. Based on research involving crows, dolphins, parrots, sheep, wasps, bats, whales, chimpanzees, and bonobos, world-renowned primatologist de Waal explores both the scope and the depth of animal intelligence. He offers a firsthand account of how science has stood traditional behaviorism on its head by revealing how smart animals are – and how we have underestimated their abilities for too long.